Diseases and Disorders

Diseases and Disorders

Curious about learning diseases that affect up to one billion people in the world? Look no further, the IYNA Journal has just what you’re looking for! With a wide variety of informative articles ranging from Hearing Loss to Alzheimer’s Disease, we are sure to satisfy your interest.

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Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease


    Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to memory loss. As of 2016, Alzheimer's disease affects 5.4 million Americans and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States (Alzheimer’s Association, 2016). There are two principal forms of the disease. Fami...

Huntington's Disease: An Overview

Huntington's Disease: An Overview


Introduction  It is no doubt that neurological disorders and conditions are extremely lethal as they can attack one of the most vital organs in the body: the brain. Our brains are responsible for our daily functions such as regulating our coordination, encoding information, and storing short/long term memory through our neurons and brain ce...

Life With No Pain: Congenital Insensitivity to Pain

Life With No Pain: Congenital Insensitivity to Pain


Abstract Pain is mostly associated with unpleasant feelings and is largely despised and feared due to the emotional distress of sensations. However, without pain, humans wouldn’t be able to separate harmful actions from non-harmful ones and wouldn’t let their body heal. The sensation of pain is very crucial to the human body as it ac...

Can Spinal Cord Injury Be Cured Through Neuroregeneration?

Can Spinal Cord Injury Be Cured Through Neuroregeneration?


Abstract     The origins of spinal cord injury can be traced back more than 4500 years, to the oldest known trauma text: the ancient Egyptian Edwin Smith Papyrus. It was here that spinal cord injury was first described by clinicians, who, even then, described it as an injury ‘not to be treated’ - an attitude that was to las...

The Genetic Correlations to Autism

The Genetic Correlations to Autism


Introduction     Ranging from almost unnoticeable issues to severe disabilities, autism is a spectrum of disorders. An awkward child capable of solving advanced math problems in his head might receive the same diagnosis of autism as another child who cannot speak.  In the last twenty years, autism has been more frequently diagnose...

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)


Introduction Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is categorized as a neurological disorder that progressively inhibits language capabilities [1]. Distinct from other forms of aphasia, PPA results from deteriorating brain tissue caused by neurodegenerative diseases.  Recent research has categorized PPA into 3 forms: Nonfluent/Agrammatic Aphasi...

Prosopagnosia: A Multifaceted Disorder

Prosopagnosia: A Multifaceted Disorder


Introduction     Prosopagnosia is a disorder colloquially referred to as face blindness. While cases of inability to recognize faces have been documented throughout history, the term prosopagnosia was first coined by the German neurologist Joachim Bodamer [2]. The disorder is classified into one of two types, acquired and developmental...

Glutamatergic Neurotransmission In Epilepsy

Glutamatergic Neurotransmission In Epilepsy


Abstract     Epilepsy is a neurological condition identified by recurrent seizures. Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, has a correlation to epilepsy symptoms and epileptogenesis, the process by which epilepsy develops in a patient. With this knowledge, experts are conducting research to develop anticonvulsant drugs...

Hearing Loss and Deafness

Hearing Loss and Deafness


Introduction Hearing is one of the five senses, along with vision, taste, smell, and touch. The ears initially receive sound waves, and, through a series of processes, transmit them to the brain.  In the brain, the sounds we hear are interpreted, integrated, and stored. In order to properly function, the auditory system requires a source of...

Foreign Accent Syndrome: A Perplexing Disorder

Foreign Accent Syndrome: A Perplexing Disorder


Introduction Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS), a disorder stemming from neurogenic causes, occurs when a person suddenly changes  linguistically to pronounce words in alternate fashions and in some unusual cases alters their ability to speak certain languages while retaining intelligible speech patterns. This sudden change can occur once faced...

Association between Vitamin D deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis

Association between Vitamin D deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis


Abstract Multiple Sclerosis is a disease caused by degradation of the myelin sheath. The definite cause and mechanism of Multiple Sclerosis are unknown, but vitamin D deficiency is recognized as one of the risk factors of Multiple Sclerosis based on geographic research. The studies suggested that as the latitude increases, the amount of sunlight...

Psychogenic Amnesia

Psychogenic Amnesia


Introduction     Amnesia, or “a condition in which a person is unable to remember things because of brain injury, shock, or illness”{1} is among the most common cause of memory loss, worldwide. This condition includes several distinct types of memory loss, including anterograde amnesia, or inability t0 form long term m...

Parasomnias: Sleep Abnormalities

Parasomnias: Sleep Abnormalities


 Sleep is an essential part of life. As described in our article on the necessity of sleep, sleep is extremely important to our physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing. However, sleep isn’t always the tranquil resting place that it should be. We are sometimes disturbed in our sleep by conditions known as parasomnias. Parasomnias, a wor...

Sleep Apnea: The Apneas that Plague the Night

Sleep Apnea: The Apneas that Plague the Night


Sleep Apnea is a prevalent and potentially life-threatening disorder in which a person experiences intermittent cyclical cessations, or reductions, of airflow during sleep. As of 2016, 42 million Americans suffer from sleep-disordered breathing (ResMed, 2016). There are three main forms of the disorder. Obstructive sleep apnea, the most common form...

The Neuropharmacology of Schizophrenia

The Neuropharmacology of Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that requires lifelong treatment. The causes of schizophrenia are not certain, however scientists believe that the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate play a role in increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. One method of treating schizophrenia is with  antipsychotic medication. Antipsychotic...

A Compendium of Narcolepsy

A Compendium of Narcolepsy


History of the Disease      In the late 19th century, French physician Jean-Baptiste-Edouard Gelineau described the curious case of a wine merchant suffering from short yet pronounced sleep attacks. Observing the merchant’s lifelong drowsiness, Gelineau proposed that the man had neurosis and described his findings in two sci...

The Pathology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

The Pathology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis


Introduction In 2014 an explosive internet trend was started that raised approximately $115 million for scientific research focused on curing a disease. Millions of people viewed celebrities such as Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg dumping numbingly cold buckets of water on their head and the reactions that followed. Through this simple act, publi...

Phantom Limb Pain: An Overview

Phantom Limb Pain: An Overview


Abstract In 1866, American neurologist S. Weir Mitchell published a short story in the Atlantic Monthly about a man who had undergone an amputation for both of his legs during the Civil War. Mitchell reported that despite receiving this operation, the man remained unaware that his legs were absent in the hospital and complained of cramping pains...

Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction

Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction


Introduction Bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) is broadly characterized by the inability to maintain posture and balance, walk in environments with low visibility, and see clearly during head movements [1]. The effects of the disorder are due to decreased vestibular function in the inner ear [2].  BVH was first described by neurosurge...

Episodic Memory Loss In Depression

Episodic Memory Loss In Depression


Introduction This article is a review of selected literature which have explored the factors associated with the link between episodic memory deterioration and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).   It has been definitively established that a direct association between an individual’s episodic memory and the hippocampus, a small orga...

A Personalized Approach to Parkinson’s Disease

A Personalized Approach to Parkinson’s Disease


Parkinson’s Disease      Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the world. The cause of the disease is unknown. Parkinson’s defining symptoms are motor impairments, which manifest due to damage of neurons in the substantia nigra, a structure of the basal ganglia located i...

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease


    Discovered in the 1920s by German scientists Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt and Alphons Maria Jakob, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), or Spongiform Encephalopathy, is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes physical changes in the brain’s spongiform tissue (BSE Info, 2016). With the annual incidence of one in a million, CJD is a rare...

Dyslexia: A Summary

Dyslexia: A Summary


Introduction The ability to communicate with other creatures is and has been an enormous advantage to any species that can master it. From primitive mating calls to more complex whistles to full-fledged language, communication allows for organisms to work with each other, accomplishing as a unit what could not be done as an individual. Much of h...

A Forgotten Past: Retrograde Amnesia

A Forgotten Past: Retrograde Amnesia


Introduction In 1926, an American man was born in Connecticut who would eventually captivate the international medical community for more than half a century and have a legacy that has left a significant mark on today’s understanding of modern neuroscience and human memory. Referred to inconspicuously as simply “H.M.,” Henry Mo...

Diabetic Neuropathy: An Overview

Diabetic Neuropathy: An Overview


Introduction As of 2012, approximately 29.1 million Americans suffer from diabetes (Statistics About Diabetes. n.d.). From that population of diabetics, diabetic neuropathy affects, or will affect, at least 50%. Characterized by a tingling sensation, numbness, pain, and a loss of sensation or motor control, diabetic neuropathy is the leading cau...

Chronic Sleep Insufficiency - an Epidemic

Chronic Sleep Insufficiency - an Epidemic


Abstract Sleep is one of the most essential but often overlooked components of modern life. The importance of sleep can be understood from the fact that we spend about one-third of our lifespan sleeping. Sleep has been implicated in learning, memory, restoring body’s energy levels, performance and physical health. In order to prevent physi...

The Uncontrollable Plight of Alien Hand Syndrome

The Uncontrollable Plight of Alien Hand Syndrome


A Moving Discovery     In 1908, eminent German neuropsychiatrist Kurt Goldstein saw a patient who complained of involuntary movements of her left hand shortly after suffering from a stroke (Sarva, H., Deik, A., & Severt, W. L., 2014). Goldstein observed the unusual nature of the uncontrollable and repetitive grasping movements made...

The Spreading of Alzheimer’s Disease Through the Brain

The Spreading of Alzheimer’s Disease Through the Brain


Introduction Alzheimer’s disease was first discovered in 1907 by the German Psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer. The disease has a slow progression affecting one out of ten people over the age of sixty-five.  It takes eight to ten years for the disease to reach its critical stage, ending in death, and presently there is no preventive medicat...

Amyloid Beta in Alzheimer's Disease

Amyloid Beta in Alzheimer's Disease


Abstract Amyloid beta has long been recognized as the most prominent molecular feature of Alzheimer's disease, along with tau tangles. In this paper, we will explore Alzheimer's disease by studying amyloid beta. We will discuss the history of amyloid beta and its role in Alzheimer's disease, as well as explore its properties, what ma...

A Synopsis of Alcoholic Neuropathy

A Synopsis of Alcoholic Neuropathy


Introduction In 1787, English physician John Coakley Lettsom observed a patient with leg paralysis and hyperesthesia. The patient that was described by Lettsom was the first description of symptoms of a disease that would later be known as alcoholic neuropathy. Later on, in 1822, neuropathy was described in alcoholics as well. By the late 1800s,...

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: An Overview

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: An Overview


Introduction Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was first acknowledged by the scientific community in 1985; doctors Mark Mahowald and Carlos Schenck of the University of Wisconsin published four cases of men over the age of 50 with RBD. These case studies detailed RBD’s hallmark symptom of violent dream enactment during...

Broca’s Aphasia: At a Loss for Words

Broca’s Aphasia: At a Loss for Words


Introduction In 1861, eminent French physician Paul Broca discovered the part of the brain that is responsible for speech production. Aptly named Broca’s area, the part of the brain Broca studied came from a patient known as “Tan,” who suffered from aphasia. Tan was unable to produce any meaningful speech by the end of his life...

Neuropharmacology of Parkinson’s Disease

Neuropharmacology of Parkinson’s Disease


Introduction In 1817, six accounts of cases of a previously unclassified disease reported muscle paralysis, decreased strength, abnormal gaits and resting tremors in patients. Although these symptoms had been noticed centuries prior by accounts in Egypt and India, the observations described in “An Essay On Shaking Palsy” by the Engli...

Glioblastoma Brain Tumors

Glioblastoma Brain Tumors


Abstract Glioblastomas (GBMs) are one of the deadliest and most common brain tumors. GBMs are included in the class of glioma tumors, since they arise from the glial tissues of the brain. The purpose of this glue-like glial tissue is to keep the brain’s neurons in place, as well as to maintain the proper functioning of the neurons. Althoug...

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Few Drinks Can Hurt

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Few Drinks Can Hurt


Introduction Ancient Greek and Roman writings show that newlyweds were forbidden to drink on their wedding night. Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) believed in the association between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities, describing the children of “drunken women” as “morose and languid” (Mitchell et a...

Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Guillain-Barré Syndrome


Introduction Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 1 in 100,000 Americans are diagnosed with GBS annually [1]. This rare disorder causes your body's immune system to attack your nerves, leading to ...

Neurotoxic Vestibulopathy: A Review of Drug-Induced Toxicity

Neurotoxic Vestibulopathy: A Review of Drug-Induced Toxicity


Abstract Since the beginning of the 1980s, soldiers working in malaria-ridden areas have received drugs for the prevention and treatment of malaria, resulting in serious neurological side effects. Specifically, the anti-malarial drug Mefloquine, and other widely-used treatments in malaria prophylaxis known as quinolines, leads to the poisoning o...

Meniere’s Disease: A Summary

Meniere’s Disease: A Summary


Introduction In 1861, French physician Prosper Meniere spoke of the main symptoms of a disease that would later be named after him. Characterized by episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss, Meniere’s Disease is a disorder of the inner ear which affects primarily one ear but may later spread to the other. Symptoms of Meniere’s...

Rett Syndrome: An Overview

Rett Syndrome: An Overview


Introduction In 1966, Austrian physician Andreas Rett documented abnormal behaviour in his journal, which was later published, about his female patients creating repetitive hand-washing motions. Researchers did not recognize this behaviour as a disorder until 1983, when Sweden researcher Bengt Hagberg published an article about it. To this day, ...

Spina Bifida

Spina Bifida


Introduction Impacting 1,500 to 2,000 babies born in the United States annually, Spina Bifida is the most common defect of the neural tube caused by the incomplete development of an embryo’s neural plate[1]. Indications of Spina Bifida have been found by anthropologists going back to at least Hippocrates; however, the first description of ...

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Apolipoprotein (APOE): Impacts on Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Apolipoprotein (APOE): Impacts on Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)


Abstract The purpose of this review is to understand how the downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may elevate the accumulation of beta-amyloid protein and impact the pathology of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). This review also identifies possible treatments that can increase BDNF levels to prevent cognitive impairment and ...

Precision Medicine in the Diagnosis, Care, and Prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis

Precision Medicine in the Diagnosis, Care, and Prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis


Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-driven demyelination of neurons leading to neurological defects. It is currently one of the leading causes of neurological disability in young adults. With the advent of genotyping and advanced technology, precision medicine has risen to the forefront of MS research. Due to the heterogeneity of clini...

Schizophrenia and the Loss of Brain Matter

Schizophrenia and the Loss of Brain Matter


Abstract Once someone is diagnosed with schizophrenia, it can be difficult for that person to navigate back into the life they had before being diagnosed. Schizophrenia can be different for everyone. Some may experience delusions and hallucinations, while others may experience various voices in their head. This is why researchers are working tir...

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Overview

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Overview


Introduction Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition marked by persistent inattention, hyperactivity, and sometimes impulsivity [1]. To this day, between 5.29% - 7.1% of children and adolescents as well as 3.4% of adults suffer from ADHD worldwide [2]. There are over 3 million cases of ADHD each year, and ADHD has ...

A Peculiar Disorder: Phantom Limb Syndrome

A Peculiar Disorder: Phantom Limb Syndrome


Abstract It was the month of July 1886 when “The Case of George Dedlow” had been published. Due to unfortunate events in the Civil War, Dedlow had lost both his arms and legs. The ultimate phenomenon was when Dedlow complained of experiencing clenching and burning in the area where his limbs would have been. Dedlow recounts, “I...

Capgras Syndrome: An Ethical Review

Capgras Syndrome: An Ethical Review


Abstract Imagine waking up one morning to the smell of fresh baked cookies from your loving mother. Now, imagine seeing your mother, but thinking that she is an imposter, someone who looks exactly like your mother, but isn’t. “My parents looked funny the other day… I think they’ve been replaced by imposters,” Janet...

The Role of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene and Copper in Alzheimer’s Disease

The Role of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene and Copper in Alzheimer’s Disease


Abstract  Alzheimer’s disease has been described as the cognitive impairment of an individual due to the formation of senile brain plaques (SP), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) [2]. Researchers have hypothesized a multitude of possible causes for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), however strong evidence has been fo...

Protein Dysregulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Protein Dysregulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis


Abstract Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig’s Disease, is a motor degenerative disease that causes loss of motor function. Several mechanisms, such as inflammation, prolonged excitation via excess glutamate, and disruption of mitochondrial function, have been proposed to contribute to the pathology of ALS.  Howeve...

The Neurology Behind  Eating Disorders

The Neurology Behind Eating Disorders


Abstract Eating disorders are biopsychosocial disorders that affect eating habits. They can come in many forms, such as anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder, with anorexia having the highest death rate among mental illnesses [1]. Despite the undeniable impact that societal pressure and social media have on the development of eating disor...

Combatting Alzheimer’s Disease Using Magnetic Fluorescent Nanoparticles

Combatting Alzheimer’s Disease Using Magnetic Fluorescent Nanoparticles


Abstract Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurological disorder that affects millions around the world, causing disabling progressive loss of memory and cognitive functions. While the effects of Alzheimer’s cannot be reversed with current medicine, there is hope to potentially slow down the effects. New forms of treatment for Alzheimer&rsquo...

Treating Alzheimer’s: Gamma Oscillations Entrainment

Treating Alzheimer’s: Gamma Oscillations Entrainment


Abstract     Affecting more than 5.5 million US citizens and around 44 million people worldwide [1], Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involves the pathological formation and deposition of  beta-amyloid plaques in the brain, which slowly disrupt neural connections. However, procedures aiming to reduce amyloid-β have failed to re...

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Overview

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Overview


Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s Disease, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord [1]. According to the ALS Association, more than 5,600 people are diagnosed per year and as many as 30,000 Americans currently are affected [2]. Out of those ...

RNA Interference in Treatment of Neurological Conditions

RNA Interference in Treatment of Neurological Conditions


Introduction RNA interference (RNAi) is one means of reducing gene expression. Interference effects take place after the transcription stage by degrading a corresponding sequence of messenger RNA (mRNA). Since the discovery of RNAi, for which A. Fire and C.C. Mello were awarded the Nobel Prize, it has become evident that RNAi holds great po...

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Pathology of Alzheimer's Disease

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Pathology of Alzheimer's Disease


Abstract The presence of early-onset, familial Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is rare (around 3% to 5% of cases) and may be accredited to disease-causing mutations. More prevalent, by contrast, is the late-onset, sporadic (non-Mendelian) form of AD, which reflects the interaction of both genetic and environmental risk factors as well as the disr...

Tourette Syndrome - Life with Tics

Tourette Syndrome - Life with Tics


Abstract The first recorded case of Tourette syndrome was in the year 1885. The French neurologist Georges Gilles de la Tourette described symptoms of involuntary, uncontrolled movements and sounds in nine of his patients [1][2]. Named after this doctor, today, the disorder is called Tourette syndrome and its main characteristic is tics, which a...

A Modern Biological Theory of Depression

A Modern Biological Theory of Depression


Abstract Purely biological theories of major depressive disorder (MDD) have waned in favor of a holistic approach in modern psychology, encompassing social, psychological, and other factors. The biological theories of depression still employed in medicine require revising. Recent evidence shows that depression is not just a chemical disorder loc...

Lazy Eye: An Overview of Amblyopia

Lazy Eye: An Overview of Amblyopia


Introduction Amblyopia is a neurological disorder in which an eye fails to achieve normal visual acuity due to the brain choosing to ignore visual input from the weaker eye. It typically develops during infancy or childhood, and affects only one eye. As a result, it is commonly referred to as a “lazy eye”. Approximately 1.75% of the ...

Alcohol Use Disorders and Neurological Functioning

Alcohol Use Disorders and Neurological Functioning


Abstract One of the most prevalent medical conditions in modern society is substance abuse disorder, specifically alcohol use disorder [1]. Patients who suffer from alcoholism can potentially suffer the negative psychological and physical effects of the disorder [1]. Chronic alcohol consumption is a major underlying contributor to a variety of h...

Prion Diseases: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Prion Diseases: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease


Introduction Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is the most common of a rare group of neurodegenerative pathogens known as human prion diseases [7]. Many researchers believe these diseases are caused by the development of abnormal bundles of proteins found on the surface of brain cells, called prions [5]. Despite being the most common form of a hum...

Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP): An Overview

Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP): An Overview


Introduction Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder associated with significant morbidity and a high mortality rate. The fourth most common neurological condition in the world, epilepsy, is characterized by abnormal neuronal activity resulting in seizures which have diverse clinical presentations, as well as widespread neuronal loss and path...

An Endoscopic Nightmare: Hydrocephalus

An Endoscopic Nightmare: Hydrocephalus


Abstract Hydrocephalus often arises due to a number of causes including genetic abnormalities, trauma or injury and often affects patients at infancy or over the age of 60. The disease involves a dilation of the cerebral ventricular system with a following compression of the brain’s parenchyma thus leading to increased intracranial pressur...

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Treatment for Depression

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Treatment for Depression


Abstract Depression is currently one of the most common mental health disorders. Mechanism-based therapies for this condition, however, remain elusive. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive technique that uses a pulsed magnetic field to induce electrical activity in the brain, is thought to be an essential therapy f...

Peroxynitrite and Chaperonins in the Molecular Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease

Peroxynitrite and Chaperonins in the Molecular Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease


Abstract Parkinson’s Disease is a common neurodegenerative motor disease, a neurodegenerative disease that affects normal movement, that is prevalent in the elder population. It is characterized by the selective neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the human brain. This disease is idiopathic, m...

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: An Overview

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: An Overview


Introduction Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), or spongiform encephalopathy, is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the brain similar to dementia and Alzheimer’s, but proceeds more rapidly. This condition ultimately leads to death. It is extremely rare, affecting one in a million worldwide and there are several different types of CJD,...

Modern Approaches in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Epilepsy

Modern Approaches in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Epilepsy


Abstract Coined by Hippocrates in the 6th century, epilepsy is amongst the most widely known neurodegenerative disorders characterized by sudden, abnormal, and recurrent events of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness, or convulsions. The diagnostic criteria developed for the identification of epilepsy in clinical practice is mainly through...

Schizophrenia: An Overview

Schizophrenia: An Overview


Abstract Schizophrenia is a chronic, neurological, and multilateral condition that affects the behavior, emotions, and thoughts of a person [1]. Patients with this disorder are usually detached from reality, losing touch with aspects of their lives [1]. While schizophrenia is not “as common as other mental disorders, the symptoms can be ve...

Savant Syndrome

Savant Syndrome


Abstract “Savant”, or ‘knowledgeable person’, is derived from the French word ‘saviour’ meaning ‘to know’ [1]. It was Dr. J. Langdon Down who,  125 years ago, described savant as a distinct condition. Savant syndrome occurs when a person with below-average intelligence displays a special talen...

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Parkinson’s Disease

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Parkinson’s Disease


Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative neurological disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system and the control of movement. A primary form of Parkinsonism, a group of disorders where there is progressive loss of motor function due to the degeneration of neurons, the idiopathic disease...

An Overview of Epilepsy: A Seizure Disorder

An Overview of Epilepsy: A Seizure Disorder


Introduction Epilepsy is classified as a seizure disorder derived from the brain. Epilepsy is diagnosed when a patient receives two or more recurring seizures that weren’t influenced by previous neurological trauma [1]. While epilepsy is classified as a seizure disorder, not all seizures are derived from epilepsy. These seizures can be ind...

Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2): An Overview

Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2): An Overview


Abstract Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes the formation of tumors on top of nerve tissues, which comprises large growth of masses of tissues due to the collection of cells. These extraneous tumor growths can be found anywhere along the nervous system, including the brain, nerves, and even the spinal cord. The implications of t...

Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Acute Canine Polyradiculoneuritis

Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Acute Canine Polyradiculoneuritis


Abstract Over the past few decades, scientists have discovered that canines can suffer from some of the same diseases as humans. The discovery of this phenomenon has led to the connection that human diseases that appear in canines could be treated with the same human treatment regimen. The same is true of neurological conditions that appear in b...

Developmental Dyslexia

Developmental Dyslexia


Introduction Learning disorders are more common than generally conceived: 15-20% of children and adults suffer from language-based learning disorders. Of those people, 5-10% have dyslexia [4][5]. Characterized by deficits in reading and interpreting words, dyslexia is a learning disability that affects 70-80% of all individuals with reading diff...

Tic Douloureux: An Overview

Tic Douloureux: An Overview


Abstract Tic douloureux, or as it is more commonly known, trigeminal neuralgia (TN), is a chronic pain condition that affects the face resulting from a problem with the fifth cranial nerve, or the trigeminal nerve. It is characterised by sharp stabbing pains that can occur several times throughout the day. The name ‘tic douloureux’ o...

Split-Brain Syndrome: An Overview

Split-Brain Syndrome: An Overview


Abstract Split-Brain Syndrome is a rare syndrome that results from the disconnection of the two hemispheres of the brain via the cleavage of the corpus callosum, the largest connective pathway between the two hemispheres. Due to the lack of interhemispheric communication exhibited by split-brain patients, split-brain research has led to major br...

The Gut in Parkinson’s Disease Pathogenesis

The Gut in Parkinson’s Disease Pathogenesis


Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease affecting millions globally [1]. Patients with the condition experience neuronal death in the central nervous system and can have both motor and non-motor symptoms. The gut microbiome and intestinal conditions have been shown to be linked to PD through the gut-brain...

The Real Life “Perfect” Memory: Hyperthymesia

The Real Life “Perfect” Memory: Hyperthymesia


Abstract Hyperthymesia is a neurological syndrome in which those affected remember nearly every event of their lives in perfect detail. It is extremely rare, affecting only a handful of people alive today. Although many people desire the idea of having a “perfect memory”, the reality of living with hyperthymesia is often less-than-st...

The Ketogenic Diet and Its Role in Neurological Diseases

The Ketogenic Diet and Its Role in Neurological Diseases


Abstract The role of the ketogenic diet in the effective treatment of some neurological diseases has been demonstrated over the past decade. It is used to treat epilepsy, migraines, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease, lateral amyotrophic sclerosis, autism, and sleep disorders. Although there is a limited amount of data about the diet &...

Akinetopsia: Motion Blindness

Akinetopsia: Motion Blindness


Abstract Akinetopsia is a condition that prevents patients from seeing motion in their visual field, following a lesion in the V5 portion of the brain. When light hits the retina, the optic nerve carries signals to the brain, which are interpreted into a series of images, perceived as motion. There are two reported types of akinetopsia: one is i...

Models and Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis

Models and Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis


Abstract Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a progressive demyelinating disease that is characterised by demyelination, perivascular inflammation, oligodendrocyte depletion, astroglia proliferation and remyelination. Generally, the aetiology of MS is still unclear, although many environmental factors and the interaction of multiple genes have been propo...

Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis: Neurology, Psychiatry, and Gender

Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis: Neurology, Psychiatry, and Gender


Abstract Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a rare autoimmune disease that causes severe neurological and psychiatric symptoms. These symptoms can range from movement disorder and psychosis to paranoid delusions [1]. Recovery can range from months to years, but has improved with the development of immunotherapies. Still, the cause is unknown [2]. Furthe...

The Potential Effects of Pandemic-Induced Isolation

The Potential Effects of Pandemic-Induced Isolation


Abstract As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many of our everyday social interactions have become virtual. The replacement of face-to-face communications with a remote equivalent, combined with general social distancing measures, could be harmful to people’s mental and physical well-being. Studies have shown that most people prefer in-pe...

Insomnia: An Overview

Insomnia: An Overview


Introduction Insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder that makes it difficult to fall or stay asleep. It can also cause nonrestorative sleep and impact one’s mood, energy, and performance during the day [1]. Most adults need at least seven hours of sleep, and insomnia prevents this from happening on a regular basis [1]. Many people experienc...

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Membralin-Boosting Gene Modification

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Membralin-Boosting Gene Modification


Abstract  Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, is a progressive nervous system disease that causes the death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord which leads to a loss of voluntary muscle control. Currently, there is no cure for this fatal disease. However, novel research has deduced that the deficiency of membralin proteins pres...

Congenital Insensitivity to Pain: An Overview

Congenital Insensitivity to Pain: An Overview


Introduction Pain is a feeling of distress associated with actual or potential tissue damage [1]. It is responsible for allowing the body to react to stimuli and preventing further tissue damage. The absence of pain can make the body vulnerable to wounds and injury. This occurs in the case of “Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy ty...

Potential Benefits of Strychnos Nux Vomica in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

Potential Benefits of Strychnos Nux Vomica in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease


Abstract Parkinson’s disease, formerly known as “shaking palsy”,  was discovered by Dr. James Parkinson in 1817. It is the second most chronicprogressive neurodegenerative medical complication. No standard diagnostic criteria has been developed so far to define Parkinson’s in the clinical practice, and so the current...

Body Dysmorphia: A Neurological Perspective

Body Dysmorphia: A Neurological Perspective


Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), also referred to as body dysmorphia, is defined as a mental illness characterized by an unhealthy obsession with one’s appearance [1]. These cosmetic concerns generally arise from a need to fit within a social standard that defines beauty and any facial or body anomalies that lead to insecurity ...

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Overview and Current Advancements

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Overview and Current Advancements


Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND) or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that harms motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, causing gradual muscle weakness, loss of movement, and paralysis [1]. Approximately 30,000 people in the United States are affected...

Lewy Body Dementia

Lewy Body Dementia


    Robin Williams was a well-known actor, comedian, and philanthropist. Starring in movies such as Dead Poet’s Society and Good WIll Hunting, as well as numerous shows and standup comedy productions, Robin was widely considered one of the best comedians of the late 20th century, and embodied the very heart and soul of comedy. &n...

St. John’s Wort’s Effect on Depression

St. John’s Wort’s Effect on Depression


Abstract One of the main responsibilities of neuroscience in the past decades has been to elucidate the boundaries of science and distinguish it from pseudoscience. The ever-increasing knowledge in different branches of neuroscience and the advent of newer technologies have helped neuroscientists gain insight into the effects of substances on th...

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An Overview

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An Overview


Introduction Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a rare, severe and progressive genetic disorder.It is caused by a genetic mutation that prevents the body from producing dystrophin, a protein that enables muscles to work properly. It is one of the most common types of muscular dystrophy, primarily affecting boys; however, it can rarely affect g...

Alzheimer’s Disease: The Reality of Finding a Cure

Alzheimer’s Disease: The Reality of Finding a Cure


Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States [1]. It impacts the older population, most particularly, women, and it is a brain disorder that progressively destroys  memory and thinking skills, and eventually, hinders one’s ability to carry out the easiest tasks such as turning on a s...

Adult Neurogenesis: An Overview

Adult Neurogenesis: An Overview


Introduction For decades, It has been widely believed that the formation of new neurons (neurogenesis) happens only in embryonic stages during development and it stops once development ends. In 1928, the father of neuroscience Ramón y Cajal said: “the founts of growth and regeneration ... dried up irrevocably. In the adult centers, ...

Alzheimer's and Nanotechnology: The Missing Puzzle Piece

Alzheimer's and Nanotechnology: The Missing Puzzle Piece


Introduction Alzheimer’s is a disease that affects over 44 million people worldwide. To many families, when a loved one receives a diagnosis of Alzheimer's, it may seem like the end of the world. They have to endure their loved ones losing precious memories and forgetting who they actually are. Recently, scientists and researchers have...

Correlations Between Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

Correlations Between Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder


Abstract Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are psychiatric disorders that make daily life difficult. The two disorders share similar risk factors and outcomes and are both difficult to diagnose and treat. SZ and BD have also been observed to have high rates of comorbidity, which has led researchers to investigate possible links and si...

Social Anxiety Disorder: An Overview

Social Anxiety Disorder: An Overview


Introduction Social anxiety disorder is a disorder in which an individual has excessive fears regarding their social performance. This disorder has neurological and psychological causes where countless children, adolescents, adults, and elderly can unknowingly suffer from it [1][3][4]. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many are isolating themselves ...

A Brief Overview of Sciatica

A Brief Overview of Sciatica


Introduction Sciatica results from complications within the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the human body, starting in the lower back and traveling down the legs. This nerve controls the muscles located in the back of the knee and lower leg, which in turn maintains sensory perception in the back portion of the legs. Dam...

A Strange Brain Disorder: Capgras Syndrome

A Strange Brain Disorder: Capgras Syndrome


Abstract As one of the strangest delusions that is not being widely recognized, Capgras Syndrome is a disorder in which patients believe their close friends or family members are imposters because they do not have any emotional attachment to them. The following essay is a general overview of Capgras Syndrome, given its symptoms, neurological cau...

Visual Snow Syndrome: An Overview

Visual Snow Syndrome: An Overview


Introduction Visual snow syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by a constant visual disturbance of tiny, flickering dots that can be likened to the static of an untuned television. Visual snow has been very recently introduced into medical literature, so little research has been conducted [1]. The exact causes of visual snow are also...

Genetic Mechanisms Involved in Alzheimer's Disease

Genetic Mechanisms Involved in Alzheimer's Disease


Introduction Neurodegenerative Diseases are a group of disorders which cause progressive and irreversible degeneration of the Nervous system. Alzheimer's Disease is one of the most common Neurodegenerative Diseases which is widely observed among the elderly. Thus, identifying and studying the factors causing this fatal disease are essential....

Cotard’s Syndrome: The Real Walking Dead

Cotard’s Syndrome: The Real Walking Dead


Abstract Cotard’s syndrome is a rare condition under which patients may deny the existence of certain parts of their body, have delusions of immortality, and even believe that they are deceased. First observed by Dr. Jules Cotard, the syndrome has multiple symptoms, including nihilistic delusions, depression, and anxiety; in addition, it o...

The Split Mind: An Overview of Dissociative Identity Disorder

The Split Mind: An Overview of Dissociative Identity Disorder


Abstract At the sound of the word dissociating, or dissociation, many immediately think of the definition of removing oneself from a situation or detaching emotionally. While this may be true, there is certainly more to dissociation, and thus, the disorder associated with it. Although often classified as a personality disorder, Dissociative Iden...

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)


Introduction Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), a common cyclic disorder of young and middle-aged individuals who menstruate, is characterized by emotional and physical symptoms that consistently occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and resolve with menstruation. It affects 20 to 32 percent of premenopausal persons[1].  People wit...