Disease

Disease

Curious about learning diseases that affect up to one billion people in the world? Look no further, the IYNA Journal has just what you’re looking for! With a wide variety of informative articles ranging from Hearing Loss to Alzheimer’s Disease, we are sure to satisfy your interest.

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Prosopagnosia: A Multifaceted Disorder

Prosopagnosia: A Multifaceted Disorder


Introduction     Prosopagnosia is a disorder colloquially referred to as face blindness. While cases of inability to recognize faces have been documented throughout history, the term prosopagnosia was first coined by the German neurologist Joachim Bodamer [2]. The disorder is classified into one of two types, acquired and developmental...

The Genetic Correlations to Autism

The Genetic Correlations to Autism


Introduction     Ranging from almost unnoticeable issues to severe disabilities, autism is a spectrum of disorders. An awkward child capable of solving advanced math problems in his head might receive the same diagnosis of autism as another child who cannot speak.  In the last twenty years, autism has been more frequently diagnose...

Can Spinal Cord Injury Be Cured Through Neuroregeneration?

Can Spinal Cord Injury Be Cured Through Neuroregeneration?


Abstract     The origins of spinal cord injury can be traced back more than 4500 years, to the oldest known trauma text: the ancient Egyptian Edwin Smith Papyrus. It was here that spinal cord injury was first described by clinicians, who, even then, described it as an injury ‘not to be treated’ - an attitude that was to las...

Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease


    Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to memory loss. As of 2016, Alzheimer's disease affects 5.4 million Americans and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States (Alzheimer’s Association, 2016). There are two principal forms of the disease. Fami...

Treating Alzheimer’s: Gamma Oscillations Entrainment

Treating Alzheimer’s: Gamma Oscillations Entrainment


Abstract     Affecting more than 5.5 million US citizens and around 44 million people worldwide [1], Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involves the pathological formation and deposition of  beta-amyloid plaques in the brain, which slowly disrupt neural connections. However, procedures aiming to reduce amyloid-β have failed to re...

Glutamatergic Neurotransmission In Epilepsy

Glutamatergic Neurotransmission In Epilepsy


Abstract     Epilepsy is a neurological condition identified by recurrent seizures. Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, has a correlation to epilepsy symptoms and epileptogenesis, the process by which epilepsy develops in a patient. With this knowledge, experts are conducting research to develop anticonvulsant drugs...

Protein Dysregulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Protein Dysregulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis


Abstract Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig’s Disease, is a motor degenerative disease that causes loss of motor function. Several mechanisms, such as inflammation, prolonged excitation via excess glutamate, and disruption of mitochondrial function, have been proposed to contribute to the pathology of ALS.  Howeve...

Lewy Body Dementia

Lewy Body Dementia


    Robin Williams was a well-known actor, comedian, and philanthropist. Starring in movies such as Dead Poet’s Society and Good WIll Hunting, as well as numerous shows and standup comedy productions, Robin was widely considered one of the best comedians of the late 20th century, and embodied the very heart and soul of comedy. &n...

Parasomnias: Sleep Abnormalities

Parasomnias: Sleep Abnormalities


 Sleep is an essential part of life. As described in our article on the necessity of sleep, sleep is extremely important to our physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing. However, sleep isn’t always the tranquil resting place that it should be. We are sometimes disturbed in our sleep by conditions known as parasomnias. Parasomnias, a wor...

Foreign Accent Syndrome: A Perplexing Disorder

Foreign Accent Syndrome: A Perplexing Disorder


Introduction Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS), a disorder stemming from neurogenic causes, occurs when a person suddenly changes  linguistically to pronounce words in alternate fashions and in some unusual cases alters their ability to speak certain languages while retaining intelligible speech patterns. This sudden change can occur once faced...

Sleep Apnea: The Apneas that Plague the Night

Sleep Apnea: The Apneas that Plague the Night


Sleep Apnea is a prevalent and potentially life-threatening disorder in which a person experiences intermittent cyclical cessations, or reductions, of airflow during sleep. As of 2016, 42 million Americans suffer from sleep-disordered breathing (ResMed, 2016). There are three main forms of the disorder. Obstructive sleep apnea, the most common form...

Combatting Alzheimer’s Disease Using Magnetic Fluorescent Nanoparticles

Combatting Alzheimer’s Disease Using Magnetic Fluorescent Nanoparticles


Abstract Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurological disorder that affects millions around the world, causing disabling progressive loss of memory and cognitive functions. While the effects of Alzheimer’s cannot be reversed with current medicine, there is hope to potentially slow down the effects. New forms of treatment for Alzheimer&rsquo...

Hearing Loss and Deafness

Hearing Loss and Deafness


Introduction Hearing is one of the five senses, along with vision, taste, smell, and touch. The ears initially receive sound waves, and, through a series of processes, transmit them to the brain.  In the brain, the sounds we hear are interpreted, integrated, and stored. In order to properly function, the auditory system requires a source of...

Dyslexia: A Summary

Dyslexia: A Summary


Introduction The ability to communicate with other creatures is and has been an enormous advantage to any species that can master it. From primitive mating calls to more complex whistles to full-fledged language, communication allows for organisms to work with each other, accomplishing as a unit what could not be done as an individual. Much of h...

The Neuropharmacology of Schizophrenia

The Neuropharmacology of Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that requires lifelong treatment. The causes of schizophrenia are not certain, however scientists believe that the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate play a role in increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. One method of treating schizophrenia is with  antipsychotic medication. Antipsychotic...

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)


Introduction Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is categorized as a neurological disorder that progressively inhibits language capabilities [1]. Distinct from other forms of aphasia, PPA results from deteriorating brain tissue caused by neurodegenerative diseases.  Recent research has categorized PPA into 3 forms: Nonfluent/Agrammatic Aphasi...

Psychogenic Amnesia

Psychogenic Amnesia


Introduction     Amnesia, or “a condition in which a person is unable to remember things because of brain injury, shock, or illness”{1} is among the most common cause of memory loss, worldwide. This condition includes several distinct types of memory loss, including anterograde amnesia, or inability t0 form long term m...

Association between Vitamin D deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis

Association between Vitamin D deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis


Abstract Multiple Sclerosis is a disease caused by degradation of the myelin sheath. The definite cause and mechanism of Multiple Sclerosis are unknown, but vitamin D deficiency is recognized as one of the risk factors of Multiple Sclerosis based on geographic research. The studies suggested that as the latitude increases, the amount of sunlight...

Neurotoxic Vestibulopathy: A Review of Drug-Induced Toxicity

Neurotoxic Vestibulopathy: A Review of Drug-Induced Toxicity


Abstract Since the beginning of the 1980s, soldiers working in malaria-ridden areas have received drugs for the prevention and treatment of malaria, resulting in serious neurological side effects. Specifically, the anti-malarial drug Mefloquine, and other widely-used treatments in malaria prophylaxis known as quinolines, leads to the poisoning o...

Diabetic Neuropathy: An Overview

Diabetic Neuropathy: An Overview


Introduction As of 2012, approximately 29.1 million Americans suffer from diabetes (Statistics About Diabetes. n.d.). From that population of diabetics, diabetic neuropathy affects, or will affect, at least 50%. Characterized by a tingling sensation, numbness, pain, and a loss of sensation or motor control, diabetic neuropathy is the leading cau...

Episodic Memory Loss In Depression

Episodic Memory Loss In Depression


Introduction This article is a review of selected literature which have explored the factors associated with the link between episodic memory deterioration and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).   It has been definitively established that a direct association between an individual’s episodic memory and the hippocampus, a small orga...

The Pathology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

The Pathology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis


Introduction In 2014 an explosive internet trend was started that raised approximately $115 million for scientific research focused on curing a disease. Millions of people viewed celebrities such as Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg dumping numbingly cold buckets of water on their head and the reactions that followed. Through this simple act, publi...

The Spreading of Alzheimer’s Disease Through the Brain

The Spreading of Alzheimer’s Disease Through the Brain


Introduction Alzheimer’s disease was first discovered in 1907 by the German Psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer. The disease has a slow progression affecting one out of ten people over the age of sixty-five.  It takes eight to ten years for the disease to reach its critical stage, ending in death, and presently there is no preventive medicat...

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: An Overview

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: An Overview


Introduction Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was first acknowledged by the scientific community in 1985; doctors Mark Mahowald and Carlos Schenck of the University of Wisconsin published four cases of men over the age of 50 with RBD. These case studies detailed RBD’s hallmark symptom of violent dream enactment during...

Chronic Sleep Insufficiency - an Epidemic

Chronic Sleep Insufficiency - an Epidemic


Abstract Sleep is one of the most essential but often overlooked components of modern life. The importance of sleep can be understood from the fact that we spend about one-third of our lifespan sleeping. Sleep has been implicated in learning, memory, restoring body’s energy levels, performance and physical health. In order to prevent physi...

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease


    Discovered in the 1920s by German scientists Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt and Alphons Maria Jakob, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), or Spongiform Encephalopathy, is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes physical changes in the brain’s spongiform tissue (BSE Info, 2016). With the annual incidence of one in a million, CJD is a rare...

The Uncontrollable Plight of Alien Hand Syndrome

The Uncontrollable Plight of Alien Hand Syndrome


A Moving Discovery     In 1908, eminent German neuropsychiatrist Kurt Goldstein saw a patient who complained of involuntary movements of her left hand shortly after suffering from a stroke (Sarva, H., Deik, A., & Severt, W. L., 2014). Goldstein observed the unusual nature of the uncontrollable and repetitive grasping movements made...

A Compendium of Narcolepsy

A Compendium of Narcolepsy


History of the Disease      In the late 19th century, French physician Jean-Baptiste-Edouard Gelineau described the curious case of a wine merchant suffering from short yet pronounced sleep attacks. Observing the merchant’s lifelong drowsiness, Gelineau proposed that the man had neurosis and described his findings in two sci...

Developmental Dyslexia

Developmental Dyslexia


Introduction Learning disorders are more common than generally conceived: 15-20% of children and adults suffer from language-based learning disorders. Of those people, 5-10% have dyslexia [4][5]. Characterized by deficits in reading and interpreting words, dyslexia is a learning disability that affects 70-80% of all individuals with reading diff...

Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction

Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction


Introduction Bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) is broadly characterized by the inability to maintain posture and balance, walk in environments with low visibility, and see clearly during head movements [1]. The effects of the disorder are due to decreased vestibular function in the inner ear [2].  BVH was first described by neurosurge...

A Personalized Approach to Parkinson’s Disease

A Personalized Approach to Parkinson’s Disease


Parkinson’s Disease      Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the world. The cause of the disease is unknown. Parkinson’s defining symptoms are motor impairments, which manifest due to damage of neurons in the substantia nigra, a structure of the basal ganglia located i...

Phantom Limb Pain: An Overview

Phantom Limb Pain: An Overview


Abstract In 1866, American neurologist S. Weir Mitchell published a short story in the Atlantic Monthly about a man who had undergone an amputation for both of his legs during the Civil War. Mitchell reported that despite receiving this operation, the man remained unaware that his legs were absent in the hospital and complained of cramping pains...

A Forgotten Past: Retrograde Amnesia

A Forgotten Past: Retrograde Amnesia


Introduction In 1926, an American man was born in Connecticut who would eventually captivate the international medical community for more than half a century and have a legacy that has left a significant mark on today’s understanding of modern neuroscience and human memory. Referred to inconspicuously as simply “H.M.,” Henry Mo...

Meniere’s Disease: A Summary

Meniere’s Disease: A Summary


Introduction In 1861, French physician Prosper Meniere spoke of the main symptoms of a disease that would later be named after him. Characterized by episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss, Meniere’s Disease is a disorder of the inner ear which affects primarily one ear but may later spread to the other. Symptoms of Meniere’s...

A Synopsis of Alcoholic Neuropathy

A Synopsis of Alcoholic Neuropathy


Introduction In 1787, English physician John Coakley Lettsom observed a patient with leg paralysis and hyperesthesia. The patient that was described by Lettsom was the first description of symptoms of a disease that would later be known as alcoholic neuropathy. Later on, in 1822, neuropathy was described in alcoholics as well. By the late 1800s,...

Broca’s Aphasia: At a Loss for Words

Broca’s Aphasia: At a Loss for Words


Introduction In 1861, eminent French physician Paul Broca discovered the part of the brain that is responsible for speech production. Aptly named Broca’s area, the part of the brain Broca studied came from a patient known as “Tan,” who suffered from aphasia. Tan was unable to produce any meaningful speech by the end of his life...

Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Guillain-Barré Syndrome


Introduction Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 1 in 100,000 Americans are diagnosed with GBS annually [1]. This rare disorder causes your body's immune system to attack your nerves, leading to ...

Spina Bifida

Spina Bifida


Introduction Impacting 1,500 to 2,000 babies born in the United States annually, Spina Bifida is the most common defect of the neural tube caused by the incomplete development of an embryo’s neural plate[1]. Indications of Spina Bifida have been found by anthropologists going back to at least Hippocrates; however, the first description of ...

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Few Drinks Can Hurt

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Few Drinks Can Hurt


Introduction Ancient Greek and Roman writings show that newlyweds were forbidden to drink on their wedding night. Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) believed in the association between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities, describing the children of “drunken women” as “morose and languid” (Mitchell et a...

The Neurology Behind  Eating Disorders

The Neurology Behind Eating Disorders


Abstract Eating disorders are biopsychosocial disorders that affect eating habits. They can come in many forms, such as anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder, with anorexia having the highest death rate among mental illnesses [1]. Despite the undeniable impact that societal pressure and social media have on the development of eating disor...

Glioblastoma Brain Tumors

Glioblastoma Brain Tumors


Abstract Glioblastomas (GBMs) are one of the deadliest and most common brain tumors. GBMs are included in the class of glioma tumors, since they arise from the glial tissues of the brain. The purpose of this glue-like glial tissue is to keep the brain’s neurons in place, as well as to maintain the proper functioning of the neurons. Althoug...

Neuropharmacology of Parkinson’s Disease

Neuropharmacology of Parkinson’s Disease


Introduction In 1817, six accounts of cases of a previously unclassified disease reported muscle paralysis, decreased strength, abnormal gaits and resting tremors in patients. Although these symptoms had been noticed centuries prior by accounts in Egypt and India, the observations described in “An Essay On Shaking Palsy” by the Engli...

Rett Syndrome: An Overview

Rett Syndrome: An Overview


Introduction In 1966, Austrian physician Andreas Rett documented abnormal behaviour in his journal, which was later published, about his female patients creating repetitive hand-washing motions. Researchers did not recognize this behaviour as a disorder until 1983, when Sweden researcher Bengt Hagberg published an article about it. To this day, ...

The Ketogenic Diet and Its Role in Neurological Diseases

The Ketogenic Diet and Its Role in Neurological Diseases


Abstract The role of the ketogenic diet in the effective treatment of some neurological diseases has been demonstrated over the past decade. It is used to treat epilepsy, migraines, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease, lateral amyotrophic sclerosis, autism, and sleep disorders. Although there is a limited amount of data about the diet &...