Diseases and Disorders

Diseases and Disorders

Curious about learning diseases that affect up to one billion people in the world? Look no further, the IYNA Journal has just what you’re looking for! With a wide variety of informative articles ranging from Hearing Loss to Alzheimer’s Disease, we are sure to satisfy your interest.

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Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s Disease


    Alzheimer’s disease, the most common form of dementia, is a neurodegenerative disorder that leads to memory loss. As of 2016, Alzheimer's disease affects 5.4 million Americans and is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States (Alzheimer’s Association, 2016). There are two principal forms of the disease. Fami...

Glutamatergic Neurotransmission In Epilepsy

Glutamatergic Neurotransmission In Epilepsy


Abstract     Epilepsy is a neurological condition identified by recurrent seizures. Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, has a correlation to epilepsy symptoms and epileptogenesis, the process by which epilepsy develops in a patient. With this knowledge, experts are conducting research to develop anticonvulsant drugs...

Can Spinal Cord Injury Be Cured Through Neuroregeneration?

Can Spinal Cord Injury Be Cured Through Neuroregeneration?


Abstract     The origins of spinal cord injury can be traced back more than 4500 years, to the oldest known trauma text: the ancient Egyptian Edwin Smith Papyrus. It was here that spinal cord injury was first described by clinicians, who, even then, described it as an injury ‘not to be treated’ - an attitude that was to las...

Prosopagnosia: A Multifaceted Disorder

Prosopagnosia: A Multifaceted Disorder


Introduction     Prosopagnosia is a disorder colloquially referred to as face blindness. While cases of inability to recognize faces have been documented throughout history, the term prosopagnosia was first coined by the German neurologist Joachim Bodamer [2]. The disorder is classified into one of two types, acquired and developmental...

The Genetic Correlations to Autism

The Genetic Correlations to Autism


Introduction     Ranging from almost unnoticeable issues to severe disabilities, autism is a spectrum of disorders. An awkward child capable of solving advanced math problems in his head might receive the same diagnosis of autism as another child who cannot speak.  In the last twenty years, autism has been more frequently diagnose...

Huntington's Disease: An Overview

Huntington's Disease: An Overview


Introduction  It is no doubt that neurological disorders and conditions are extremely lethal as they can attack one of the most vital organs in the body: the brain. Our brains are responsible for our daily functions such as regulating our coordination, encoding information, and storing short/long term memory through our neurons and brain ce...

Parasomnias: Sleep Abnormalities

Parasomnias: Sleep Abnormalities


 Sleep is an essential part of life. As described in our article on the necessity of sleep, sleep is extremely important to our physical, mental, and emotional wellbeing. However, sleep isn’t always the tranquil resting place that it should be. We are sometimes disturbed in our sleep by conditions known as parasomnias. Parasomnias, a wor...

Hearing Loss and Deafness

Hearing Loss and Deafness


Introduction Hearing is one of the five senses, along with vision, taste, smell, and touch. The ears initially receive sound waves, and, through a series of processes, transmit them to the brain.  In the brain, the sounds we hear are interpreted, integrated, and stored. In order to properly function, the auditory system requires a source of...

The Neuropharmacology of Schizophrenia

The Neuropharmacology of Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder that requires lifelong treatment. The causes of schizophrenia are not certain, however scientists believe that the neurotransmitters dopamine and glutamate play a role in increasing the risk of developing schizophrenia. One method of treating schizophrenia is with  antipsychotic medication. Antipsychotic...

Internet Gaming Disorder

Internet Gaming Disorder


Abstract This article discusses Internet Gaming Disorder, a condition that results from overplaying video games, leading to an individual’s reward system getting hijacked and the individual becoming addicted to video games. It is important to bring up some of the advantages and disadvantages of formally recognizing this disorder and to dis...

Episodic Memory Loss In Depression

Episodic Memory Loss In Depression


Introduction This article is a review of selected literature which have explored the factors associated with the link between episodic memory deterioration and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).   It has been definitively established that a direct association between an individual’s episodic memory and the hippocampus, a small orga...

Phantom Limb Pain: An Overview

Phantom Limb Pain: An Overview


Abstract In 1866, American neurologist S. Weir Mitchell published a short story in the Atlantic Monthly about a man who had undergone an amputation for both of his legs during the Civil War. Mitchell reported that despite receiving this operation, the man remained unaware that his legs were absent in the hospital and complained of cramping pains...

A Personalized Approach to Parkinson’s Disease

A Personalized Approach to Parkinson’s Disease


Parkinson’s Disease      Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the world. The cause of the disease is unknown. Parkinson’s defining symptoms are motor impairments, which manifest due to damage of neurons in the substantia nigra, a structure of the basal ganglia located i...

Chronic Sleep Insufficiency - an Epidemic

Chronic Sleep Insufficiency - an Epidemic


Abstract Sleep is one of the most essential but often overlooked components of modern life. The importance of sleep can be understood from the fact that we spend about one-third of our lifespan sleeping. Sleep has been implicated in learning, memory, restoring body’s energy levels, performance and physical health. In order to prevent physi...

Diabetic Neuropathy: An Overview

Diabetic Neuropathy: An Overview


Introduction As of 2012, approximately 29.1 million Americans suffer from diabetes (Statistics About Diabetes. n.d.). From that population of diabetics, diabetic neuropathy affects, or will affect, at least 50%. Characterized by a tingling sensation, numbness, pain, and a loss of sensation or motor control, diabetic neuropathy is the leading cau...

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease


    Discovered in the 1920s by German scientists Hans Gerhard Creutzfeldt and Alphons Maria Jakob, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), or Spongiform Encephalopathy, is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes physical changes in the brain’s spongiform tissue (BSE Info, 2016). With the annual incidence of one in a million, CJD is a rare...

Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction

Bilateral Vestibular Hypofunction


Introduction Bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) is broadly characterized by the inability to maintain posture and balance, walk in environments with low visibility, and see clearly during head movements [1]. The effects of the disorder are due to decreased vestibular function in the inner ear [2].  BVH was first described by neurosurge...

A Forgotten Past: Retrograde Amnesia

A Forgotten Past: Retrograde Amnesia


Introduction In 1926, an American man was born in Connecticut who would eventually captivate the international medical community for more than half a century and have a legacy that has left a significant mark on today’s understanding of modern neuroscience and human memory. Referred to inconspicuously as simply “H.M.,” Henry Mo...

The Pathology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

The Pathology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis


Introduction In 2014 an explosive internet trend was started that raised approximately $115 million for scientific research focused on curing a disease. Millions of people viewed celebrities such as Bill Gates and Mark Zuckerberg dumping numbingly cold buckets of water on their head and the reactions that followed. Through this simple act, publi...

Sleep Apnea: The Apneas that Plague the Night

Sleep Apnea: The Apneas that Plague the Night


Sleep Apnea is a prevalent and potentially life-threatening disorder in which a person experiences intermittent cyclical cessations, or reductions, of airflow during sleep. As of 2016, 42 million Americans suffer from sleep-disordered breathing (ResMed, 2016). There are three main forms of the disorder. Obstructive sleep apnea, the most common form...

Dyslexia: A Summary

Dyslexia: A Summary


Introduction The ability to communicate with other creatures is and has been an enormous advantage to any species that can master it. From primitive mating calls to more complex whistles to full-fledged language, communication allows for organisms to work with each other, accomplishing as a unit what could not be done as an individual. Much of h...

A Compendium of Narcolepsy

A Compendium of Narcolepsy


History of the Disease      In the late 19th century, French physician Jean-Baptiste-Edouard Gelineau described the curious case of a wine merchant suffering from short yet pronounced sleep attacks. Observing the merchant’s lifelong drowsiness, Gelineau proposed that the man had neurosis and described his findings in two sci...

Foreign Accent Syndrome: A Perplexing Disorder

Foreign Accent Syndrome: A Perplexing Disorder


Introduction Foreign Accent Syndrome (FAS), a disorder stemming from neurogenic causes, occurs when a person suddenly changes  linguistically to pronounce words in alternate fashions and in some unusual cases alters their ability to speak certain languages while retaining intelligible speech patterns. This sudden change can occur once faced...

The Uncontrollable Plight of Alien Hand Syndrome

The Uncontrollable Plight of Alien Hand Syndrome


A Moving Discovery     In 1908, eminent German neuropsychiatrist Kurt Goldstein saw a patient who complained of involuntary movements of her left hand shortly after suffering from a stroke (Sarva, H., Deik, A., & Severt, W. L., 2014). Goldstein observed the unusual nature of the uncontrollable and repetitive grasping movements made...

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA)


Introduction Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is categorized as a neurological disorder that progressively inhibits language capabilities [1]. Distinct from other forms of aphasia, PPA results from deteriorating brain tissue caused by neurodegenerative diseases.  Recent research has categorized PPA into 3 forms: Nonfluent/Agrammatic Aphasi...

Neuropharmacology of Parkinson’s Disease

Neuropharmacology of Parkinson’s Disease


Introduction In 1817, six accounts of cases of a previously unclassified disease reported muscle paralysis, decreased strength, abnormal gaits and resting tremors in patients. Although these symptoms had been noticed centuries prior by accounts in Egypt and India, the observations described in “An Essay On Shaking Palsy” by the Engli...

The Spreading of Alzheimer’s Disease Through the Brain

The Spreading of Alzheimer’s Disease Through the Brain


Introduction Alzheimer’s disease was first discovered in 1907 by the German Psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer. The disease has a slow progression affecting one out of ten people over the age of sixty-five.  It takes eight to ten years for the disease to reach its critical stage, ending in death, and presently there is no preventive medicat...

Association between Vitamin D deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis

Association between Vitamin D deficiency and Multiple Sclerosis


Abstract Multiple Sclerosis is a disease caused by degradation of the myelin sheath. The definite cause and mechanism of Multiple Sclerosis are unknown, but vitamin D deficiency is recognized as one of the risk factors of Multiple Sclerosis based on geographic research. The studies suggested that as the latitude increases, the amount of sunlight...

Broca’s Aphasia: At a Loss for Words

Broca’s Aphasia: At a Loss for Words


Introduction In 1861, eminent French physician Paul Broca discovered the part of the brain that is responsible for speech production. Aptly named Broca’s area, the part of the brain Broca studied came from a patient known as “Tan,” who suffered from aphasia. Tan was unable to produce any meaningful speech by the end of his life...

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Few Drinks Can Hurt

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Few Drinks Can Hurt


Introduction Ancient Greek and Roman writings show that newlyweds were forbidden to drink on their wedding night. Aristotle (384 - 322 BC) believed in the association between alcohol consumption during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities, describing the children of “drunken women” as “morose and languid” (Mitchell et a...

Psychogenic Amnesia

Psychogenic Amnesia


Introduction     Amnesia, or “a condition in which a person is unable to remember things because of brain injury, shock, or illness”{1} is among the most common cause of memory loss, worldwide. This condition includes several distinct types of memory loss, including anterograde amnesia, or inability t0 form long term m...

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: An Overview

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: An Overview


Introduction Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) was first acknowledged by the scientific community in 1985; doctors Mark Mahowald and Carlos Schenck of the University of Wisconsin published four cases of men over the age of 50 with RBD. These case studies detailed RBD’s hallmark symptom of violent dream enactment during...

Glioblastoma Brain Tumors

Glioblastoma Brain Tumors


Abstract Glioblastomas (GBMs) are one of the deadliest and most common brain tumors. GBMs are included in the class of glioma tumors, since they arise from the glial tissues of the brain. The purpose of this glue-like glial tissue is to keep the brain’s neurons in place, as well as to maintain the proper functioning of the neurons. Althoug...

Guillain-Barré Syndrome

Guillain-Barré Syndrome


Introduction Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 1 in 100,000 Americans are diagnosed with GBS annually [1]. This rare disorder causes your body's immune system to attack your nerves, leading to ...

Meniere’s Disease: A Summary

Meniere’s Disease: A Summary


Introduction In 1861, French physician Prosper Meniere spoke of the main symptoms of a disease that would later be named after him. Characterized by episodes of vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss, Meniere’s Disease is a disorder of the inner ear which affects primarily one ear but may later spread to the other. Symptoms of Meniere’s...

Neurotoxic Vestibulopathy: A Review of Drug-Induced Toxicity

Neurotoxic Vestibulopathy: A Review of Drug-Induced Toxicity


Abstract Since the beginning of the 1980s, soldiers working in malaria-ridden areas have received drugs for the prevention and treatment of malaria, resulting in serious neurological side effects. Specifically, the anti-malarial drug Mefloquine, and other widely-used treatments in malaria prophylaxis known as quinolines, leads to the poisoning o...

Spina Bifida

Spina Bifida


Introduction Impacting 1,500 to 2,000 babies born in the United States annually, Spina Bifida is the most common defect of the neural tube caused by the incomplete development of an embryo’s neural plate[1]. Indications of Spina Bifida have been found by anthropologists going back to at least Hippocrates; however, the first description of ...

The Modulatory Effect of Neurotransmitters on Amygdala Dysfunction and Anxiety Disorders

The Modulatory Effect of Neurotransmitters on Amygdala Dysfunction and Anxiety Disorders


Abstract Regulation of emotional states including anxiety through one of the most important parts of the brain, known as the amygdala, can be controlled by the effects initiated by essential chemical substances known as neurotransmitters. Although many endogenous neurotransmitters exist, specifically GABA, serotonin, dopamine, and synthetics inc...

Combatting Alzheimer’s Disease Using Magnetic Fluorescent Nanoparticles

Combatting Alzheimer’s Disease Using Magnetic Fluorescent Nanoparticles


Abstract Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurological disorder that affects millions around the world, causing disabling progressive loss of memory and cognitive functions. While the effects of Alzheimer’s cannot be reversed with current medicine, there is hope to potentially slow down the effects. New forms of treatment for Alzheimer&rsquo...

A Peculiar Disorder: Phantom Limb Syndrome

A Peculiar Disorder: Phantom Limb Syndrome


Abstract It was the month of July 1886 when “The Case of George Dedlow” had been published. Due to unfortunate events in the Civil War, Dedlow had lost both his arms and legs. The ultimate phenomenon was when Dedlow complained of experiencing clenching and burning in the area where his limbs would have been. Dedlow recounts, “I...

The Neurology Behind  Eating Disorders

The Neurology Behind Eating Disorders


Abstract Eating disorders are biopsychosocial disorders that affect eating habits. They can come in many forms, such as anorexia, bulimia, and binge eating disorder, with anorexia having the highest death rate among mental illnesses [1]. Despite the undeniable impact that societal pressure and social media have on the development of eating disor...

Protein Dysregulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Protein Dysregulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis


Abstract Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig’s Disease, is a motor degenerative disease that causes loss of motor function. Several mechanisms, such as inflammation, prolonged excitation via excess glutamate, and disruption of mitochondrial function, have been proposed to contribute to the pathology of ALS.  Howeve...

A Synopsis of Alcoholic Neuropathy

A Synopsis of Alcoholic Neuropathy


Introduction In 1787, English physician John Coakley Lettsom observed a patient with leg paralysis and hyperesthesia. The patient that was described by Lettsom was the first description of symptoms of a disease that would later be known as alcoholic neuropathy. Later on, in 1822, neuropathy was described in alcoholics as well. By the late 1800s,...

Rett Syndrome: An Overview

Rett Syndrome: An Overview


Introduction In 1966, Austrian physician Andreas Rett documented abnormal behaviour in his journal, which was later published, about his female patients creating repetitive hand-washing motions. Researchers did not recognize this behaviour as a disorder until 1983, when Sweden researcher Bengt Hagberg published an article about it. To this day, ...

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Overview

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): An Overview


Introduction Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition marked by persistent inattention, hyperactivity, and sometimes impulsivity [1]. To this day, between 5.29% - 7.1% of children and adolescents as well as 3.4% of adults suffer from ADHD worldwide [2]. There are over 3 million cases of ADHD each year, and ADHD has ...

Lazy Eye: An Overview of Amblyopia

Lazy Eye: An Overview of Amblyopia


Introduction Amblyopia is a neurological disorder in which an eye fails to achieve normal visual acuity due to the brain choosing to ignore visual input from the weaker eye. It typically develops during infancy or childhood, and affects only one eye. As a result, it is commonly referred to as a “lazy eye”. Approximately 1.75% of the ...

Treating Alzheimer’s: Gamma Oscillations Entrainment

Treating Alzheimer’s: Gamma Oscillations Entrainment


Abstract     Affecting more than 5.5 million US citizens and around 44 million people worldwide [1], Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involves the pathological formation and deposition of  beta-amyloid plaques in the brain, which slowly disrupt neural connections. However, procedures aiming to reduce amyloid-β have failed to re...

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Overview

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Overview


Introduction Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s Disease, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord [1]. According to the ALS Association, more than 5,600 people are diagnosed per year and as many as 30,000 Americans currently are affected [2]. Out of those ...

Dystonia: A Deep Dive Into the Neurosurgical Solution

Dystonia: A Deep Dive Into the Neurosurgical Solution


Abstract Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by the involuntary contraction of muscles, leading to repetitive and twisted-like movements. Oftentimes, the condition can affect various parts of your peripheral nervous system, and thus can affect the body as a whole. In severe cases, surgery is used to disable certain cranial nerves as is...

A Modern Biological Theory of Depression

A Modern Biological Theory of Depression


Abstract Purely biological theories of major depressive disorder (MDD) have waned in favor of a holistic approach in modern psychology, encompassing social, psychological, and other factors. The biological theories of depression still employed in medicine require revising. Recent evidence shows that depression is not just a chemical disorder loc...

How Does the SARS-Cov-2 Virus Affect the Brain?

How Does the SARS-Cov-2 Virus Affect the Brain?


Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), more commonly as COVID-19 (named for the year it was identified), is a novel coronavirus. The first known case was identified in December of 2019 in Wuhan, China, when a connection was made between a breakout of acute respiratory illnesses in Wuhan and a live animal food mark...

Current and Emerging Treatment Options for Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Current and Emerging Treatment Options for Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis


Abstract Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a devastating consequence of liver failure that results in potentially debilitating cognitive impairment affecting patients and their caregivers alike. HE burdens both the patient and caregivers with substantial physical, emotional, and monetary costs, as well as health care systems with frequent hospitali...

Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP): An Overview

Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP): An Overview


Introduction Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder associated with significant morbidity and a high mortality rate. The fourth most common neurological condition in the world, epilepsy, is characterized by abnormal neuronal activity resulting in seizures which have diverse clinical presentations, as well as widespread neuronal loss and path...

Naegleria fowleri: The Brain-Eating Amoeba

Naegleria fowleri: The Brain-Eating Amoeba


Abstract With only 381 reported cases since 1937, it is safe to say that primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a rare disease. Perhaps precisely due to this rarity, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which the microorganism Naegleria fowleri causes this fatal inflammation of the central nervous system in humans. This articl...

Schizophrenia: Symptomatology and Etiology

Schizophrenia: Symptomatology and Etiology


Abstract Schizophrenia is a rare disorder producing severe psychiatric and neurological symptoms in less than 1.1% of the world’s population. A lot of information is not yet known about this particular disorder and research continues all over the world to uncover more about it. Even though the exact cause is unknown, it is believed to occu...

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Treatment for Depression

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Treatment for Depression


Abstract Depression is currently one of the most common mental health disorders. Mechanism-based therapies for this condition, however, remain elusive. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive technique that uses a pulsed magnetic field to induce electrical activity in the brain, is thought to be an essential therapy f...

Pseudodementia: An Overview and Comparison to Organic Dementia

Pseudodementia: An Overview and Comparison to Organic Dementia


Abstract When deciding what causes cognitive decline, many conditions need to be eliminated before confirming the presence of a neurodegenerative pathology. One of the conditions often mistaken for organic dementia - a biological pathology - is a psychiatric phenomenon called Pseudodementia or PDEM. Pseudodementia (PDEM) is a psychiatric illness...

Prion Diseases: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

Prion Diseases: Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease


Introduction Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is the most common of a rare group of neurodegenerative pathogens known as human prion diseases [7]. Many researchers believe these diseases are caused by the development of abnormal bundles of proteins found on the surface of brain cells, called prions [5]. Despite being the most common form of a hum...

Factors Associated With Atypical Presentations of Alzheimer's Disease

Factors Associated With Atypical Presentations of Alzheimer's Disease


Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a type of neurodegenerative pathology that typically leads to dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (DAT), a clinical diagnosis characterized primarily by memory impairment. However, other clinical presentations can also be seen in people with AD neuropathology. For example, AD may cause primary progre...

Sigma-1 Receptors: Promising Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer’s Disease

Sigma-1 Receptors: Promising Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer’s Disease


Abstract Sigma-1 receptors are one of two sigma receptor subtypes and are multifunctional ligands present in the endoplasmic reticulum. Sigma-1 receptors have shown promising potential as a therapeutic target for many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimers’ Disease. The location in the endoplasmic reticulum, specifically the...

Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of Parkinson’s Disease

Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of Parkinson’s Disease


Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects more than ten million people worldwide, and its prevalence is expected to continue to rise. PD is primarily known as a movement disorder, but affected adults often experience other neuropsychiatric manifestations such as hallucinations, sleep disturbances, and depression or anxiety. New research su...

Friedreich's Ataxia: An Overview

Friedreich's Ataxia: An Overview


Abstract Ataxia is a rare disorder that affects around 150,000 individuals in the United States. Ataxia is a physical symptom characterized by decreased coordination of voluntary muscle action. Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), a neurological movement disease with a hereditary component, commonly occurs between the ages of 10 and 15 years. Recent ...

Modern Approaches in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Epilepsy

Modern Approaches in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Epilepsy


Abstract Coined by Hippocrates in the 6th century, epilepsy is amongst the most widely known neurodegenerative disorders characterized by sudden, abnormal, and recurrent events of sensory disturbance, loss of consciousness, or convulsions. The diagnostic criteria developed for the identification of epilepsy in clinical practice is mainly through...

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: An Overview

Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: An Overview


Introduction Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), or spongiform encephalopathy, is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects the brain similar to dementia and Alzheimer’s, but proceeds more rapidly. This condition ultimately leads to death. It is extremely rare, affecting one in a million worldwide and there are several different types of CJD,...

Role of Microglia in Alzheimer’s Disease, Depression and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Role of Microglia in Alzheimer’s Disease, Depression and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder


Abstract Microglia are representatives of glial cells. They are predominantly present in the nervous system, constituting up to 10% of the glial population. Their primary function is to defend themselves against pathogens and other factors, such as beta-amyloid plaques. Microglia were only recently found to be crucial for maintaining neuroplasti...

Life With No Pain: Congenital Insensitivity to Pain

Life With No Pain: Congenital Insensitivity to Pain


Abstract Pain is mostly associated with unpleasant feelings and is largely despised and feared due to the emotional distress of sensations. However, without pain, humans wouldn’t be able to separate harmful actions from non-harmful ones and wouldn’t let their body heal. The sensation of pain is very crucial to the human body as it ac...

The Relationship Between Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD)

The Relationship Between Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD)


Abstract Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) are incurable disorders that can affect a patient's daily life. Both DID and PTSD are caused by severe trauma; most DID patients will also have some form of PTSD. Many studies have explored the corresponding effects of these two disorders on the amygdala ...

Neurological Impairment in Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy and Its Treatment

Neurological Impairment in Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy and Its Treatment


Abstract Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy is one of the most common inheritable genetic disorders within the United States. DMD is caused by a genetic mutation in the gene that codes for the protein dystrophin. Through the past decades, research has been done in an array of both animal (mice) and human models, which are able to roughly reflec...

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review on the Impact on Children Versus Adults

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review on the Impact on Children Versus Adults


Abstract  The recent discovery and repurposing of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to treat patients with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have revolutionized the treatment of this psychiatric disease. Here we present a review of the current literature on tDCS to treat ADHD to assess whether tDCS has differentia...

Amyloid Beta in Alzheimer's Disease

Amyloid Beta in Alzheimer's Disease


Abstract Amyloid beta has long been recognized as the most prominent molecular feature of Alzheimer's disease, along with tau tangles. In this paper, we will explore Alzheimer's disease by studying amyloid beta. We will discuss the history of amyloid beta and its role in Alzheimer's disease, as well as explore its properties, what ma...

Alcohol Use Disorders and Neurological Functioning

Alcohol Use Disorders and Neurological Functioning


Abstract One of the most prevalent medical conditions in modern society is substance abuse disorder, specifically alcohol use disorder [1]. Patients who suffer from alcoholism can potentially suffer the negative psychological and physical effects of the disorder [1]. Chronic alcohol consumption is a major underlying contributor to a variety of h...

The Progression of Alzheimer's Disease

The Progression of Alzheimer's Disease


Abstract Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, typically affecting individuals 65 years and older. AD results in memory loss, confusion, changes in personality, and eventually, complete loss of independence. AD progresses through a series of stages: the preclinical stage, early (mild) stage, middle (moderate) stage, and...

Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System and Depression

Mesolimbic Dopaminergic System and Depression


Abstract Major Depression Disorder (MDD) is a common mental health disorder in the United States that can cause impairments in a person's daily life due to symptoms including anhedonia, social isolation, insomnia, suicidal thoughts, etc. While scientists have been honing in on how some neurotransmitters may be correlated with depression, ano...

Language Development and Communication and Neuroanatomical Differences in Children with ASD

Language Development and Communication and Neuroanatomical Differences in Children with ASD


Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASD), characterized by deficits in social communication and restricted, repetitive behaviors, are neurodevelopmental disorders affecting approximately 1 in every 54 children. Differences in producing and processing language are common in those with ASD and affect communication. Usage of social communication to...

Savant Syndrome

Savant Syndrome


Abstract “Savant”, or ‘knowledgeable person’, is derived from the French word ‘saviour’ meaning ‘to know’ [1]. It was Dr. J. Langdon Down who,  125 years ago, described savant as a distinct condition. Savant syndrome occurs when a person with below-average intelligence displays a special talen...

Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2): An Overview

Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2): An Overview


Abstract Neurofibromatosis is a genetic disorder that causes the formation of tumors on top of nerve tissues, which comprises large growth of masses of tissues due to the collection of cells. These extraneous tumor growths can be found anywhere along the nervous system, including the brain, nerves, and even the spinal cord. The implications of t...

Scrupulosity: An Overview of “Religious OCD”

Scrupulosity: An Overview of “Religious OCD”


Abstract Scrupulosity is a mental disorder characterized by obsessive thoughts and anxiety, often with accompanying compulsive behaviors, concerning religion. Recent research developments have pinpointed abnormalities in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, and basal ganglia as being related to the presence of OCD, but furth...

Developmental Dyslexia

Developmental Dyslexia


Introduction Learning disorders are more common than generally conceived: 15-20% of children and adults suffer from language-based learning disorders. Of those people, 5-10% have dyslexia [4][5]. Characterized by deficits in reading and interpreting words, dyslexia is a learning disability that affects 70-80% of all individuals with reading diff...

Tic Douloureux: An Overview

Tic Douloureux: An Overview


Abstract Tic douloureux, or as it is more commonly known, trigeminal neuralgia (TN), is a chronic pain condition that affects the face resulting from a problem with the fifth cranial nerve, or the trigeminal nerve. It is characterised by sharp stabbing pains that can occur several times throughout the day. The name ‘tic douloureux’ o...

Hemispatial Neglect Syndrome: An Overview

Hemispatial Neglect Syndrome: An Overview


Abstract Hemispatial neglect syndrome is  a long-lasting damage to the right (and sometimes, but rarely, the left) hemisphere of the brain after a stroke. Hemispatial neglect usually manifests as a neurological condition. There are behavioral tests performed to quickly and easily diagnose individuals with the syndrome. If diagnosed with the...

An Overview of Epilepsy: A Seizure Disorder

An Overview of Epilepsy: A Seizure Disorder


Introduction Epilepsy is classified as a seizure disorder derived from the brain. Epilepsy is diagnosed when a patient receives two or more recurring seizures that weren’t influenced by previous neurological trauma [1]. While epilepsy is classified as a seizure disorder, not all seizures are derived from epilepsy. These seizures can be ind...

Investigating ASD Through a PCT Lens

Investigating ASD Through a PCT Lens


Abstract Predictive coding theory (PCT) posits that our brain generates predictions about the world to evaluate incoming sensory information from the environment. Furthermore, PCT serves as a lens from which we can better understand the nature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although modern scientists have studied ASD in a myriad of contexts,...

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Parkinson’s Disease

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Parkinson’s Disease


Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative neurological disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system and the control of movement. A primary form of Parkinsonism, a group of disorders where there is progressive loss of motor function due to the degeneration of neurons, the idiopathic disease...

The Gut in Parkinson’s Disease Pathogenesis

The Gut in Parkinson’s Disease Pathogenesis


Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disease affecting millions globally [1]. Patients with the condition experience neuronal death in the central nervous system and can have both motor and non-motor symptoms. The gut microbiome and intestinal conditions have been shown to be linked to PD through the gut-brain...

Split-Brain Syndrome: An Overview

Split-Brain Syndrome: An Overview


Abstract Split-Brain Syndrome is a rare syndrome that results from the disconnection of the two hemispheres of the brain via the cleavage of the corpus callosum, the largest connective pathway between the two hemispheres. Due to the lack of interhemispheric communication exhibited by split-brain patients, split-brain research has led to major br...

The Ketogenic Diet and Its Role in Neurological Diseases

The Ketogenic Diet and Its Role in Neurological Diseases


Abstract The role of the ketogenic diet in the effective treatment of some neurological diseases has been demonstrated over the past decade. It is used to treat epilepsy, migraines, Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s disease, lateral amyotrophic sclerosis, autism, and sleep disorders. Although there is a limited amount of data about the diet &...

Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Acute Canine Polyradiculoneuritis

Guillain-Barré Syndrome and Acute Canine Polyradiculoneuritis


Abstract Over the past few decades, scientists have discovered that canines can suffer from some of the same diseases as humans. The discovery of this phenomenon has led to the connection that human diseases that appear in canines could be treated with the same human treatment regimen. The same is true of neurological conditions that appear in b...

Capgras Syndrome: An Ethical Review

Capgras Syndrome: An Ethical Review


Abstract Imagine waking up one morning to the smell of fresh baked cookies from your loving mother. Now, imagine seeing your mother, but thinking that she is an imposter, someone who looks exactly like your mother, but isn’t. “My parents looked funny the other day… I think they’ve been replaced by imposters,” Janet...

Speech Production Within Down Syndrome

Speech Production Within Down Syndrome


Abstract Speech production is the crux of human communication both in typically and atypically developing populations. Individuals with Down Syndrome (DS) show many speech production deficits, which prevent them from achieving effective communication. This paper seeks to describe the major factors that affect speech in DS by reviewing current me...

Models and Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis

Models and Biomarkers of Multiple Sclerosis


Abstract Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a progressive demyelinating disease that is characterised by demyelination, perivascular inflammation, oligodendrocyte depletion, astroglia proliferation and remyelination. Generally, the aetiology of MS is still unclear, although many environmental factors and the interaction of multiple genes have been propo...

Insomnia: An Overview

Insomnia: An Overview


Introduction Insomnia is a prevalent sleep disorder that makes it difficult to fall or stay asleep. It can also cause nonrestorative sleep and impact one’s mood, energy, and performance during the day [1]. Most adults need at least seven hours of sleep, and insomnia prevents this from happening on a regular basis [1]. Many people experienc...

Schizophrenia and the Loss of Brain Matter

Schizophrenia and the Loss of Brain Matter


Abstract Once someone is diagnosed with schizophrenia, it can be difficult for that person to navigate back into the life they had before being diagnosed. Schizophrenia can be different for everyone. Some may experience delusions and hallucinations, while others may experience various voices in their head. This is why researchers are working tir...

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Membralin-Boosting Gene Modification

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Membralin-Boosting Gene Modification


Abstract  Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or ALS, is a progressive nervous system disease that causes the death of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord which leads to a loss of voluntary muscle control. Currently, there is no cure for this fatal disease. However, novel research has deduced that the deficiency of membralin proteins pres...

Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis: Neurology, Psychiatry, and Gender

Anti-NMDAR Encephalitis: Neurology, Psychiatry, and Gender


Abstract Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a rare autoimmune disease that causes severe neurological and psychiatric symptoms. These symptoms can range from movement disorder and psychosis to paranoid delusions [1]. Recovery can range from months to years, but has improved with the development of immunotherapies. Still, the cause is unknown [2]. Furthe...

The Potential Effects of Pandemic-Induced Isolation

The Potential Effects of Pandemic-Induced Isolation


Abstract As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, many of our everyday social interactions have become virtual. The replacement of face-to-face communications with a remote equivalent, combined with general social distancing measures, could be harmful to people’s mental and physical well-being. Studies have shown that most people prefer in-pe...

Neurological Interpretations of Transsexuality and Gender Dysphoria

Neurological Interpretations of Transsexuality and Gender Dysphoria


Abstract It is only recently that transsexuality has been found to exhibit correlations with the findings of neuropsychology. After recognizing that certain cerebral regions of heterosexual men can often be differentiated from those of women, neuroscientists also noticed that those regions of many transgender individuals present directional grow...

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Overview and Current Advancements

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Overview and Current Advancements


Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND) or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that harms motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, causing gradual muscle weakness, loss of movement, and paralysis [1]. Approximately 30,000 people in the United States are affected...

Lewy Body Dementia

Lewy Body Dementia


    Robin Williams was a well-known actor, comedian, and philanthropist. Starring in movies such as Dead Poet’s Society and Good WIll Hunting, as well as numerous shows and standup comedy productions, Robin was widely considered one of the best comedians of the late 20th century, and embodied the very heart and soul of comedy. &n...

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An Overview

Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: An Overview


Introduction Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a rare, severe and progressive genetic disorder.It is caused by a genetic mutation that prevents the body from producing dystrophin, a protein that enables muscles to work properly. It is one of the most common types of muscular dystrophy, primarily affecting boys; however, it can rarely affect g...

Alzheimer’s Disease: The Reality of Finding a Cure

Alzheimer’s Disease: The Reality of Finding a Cure


Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States [1]. It impacts the older population, most particularly, women, and it is a brain disorder that progressively destroys  memory and thinking skills, and eventually, hinders one’s ability to carry out the easiest tasks such as turning on a s...

Potential Benefits of Strychnos Nux Vomica in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease

Potential Benefits of Strychnos Nux Vomica in the Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease


Abstract Parkinson’s disease, formerly known as “shaking palsy”,  was discovered by Dr. James Parkinson in 1817. It is the second most chronicprogressive neurodegenerative medical complication. No standard diagnostic criteria has been developed so far to define Parkinson’s in the clinical practice, and so the current...

Schizophrenia: An Overview

Schizophrenia: An Overview


Abstract Schizophrenia is a chronic, neurological, and multilateral condition that affects the behavior, emotions, and thoughts of a person [1]. Patients with this disorder are usually detached from reality, losing touch with aspects of their lives [1]. While schizophrenia is not “as common as other mental disorders, the symptoms can be ve...

Body Dysmorphia: A Neurological Perspective

Body Dysmorphia: A Neurological Perspective


Introduction Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), also referred to as body dysmorphia, is defined as a mental illness characterized by an unhealthy obsession with one’s appearance [1]. These cosmetic concerns generally arise from a need to fit within a social standard that defines beauty and any facial or body anomalies that lead to insecurity ...

An Endoscopic Nightmare: Hydrocephalus

An Endoscopic Nightmare: Hydrocephalus


Abstract Hydrocephalus often arises due to a number of causes including genetic abnormalities, trauma or injury and often affects patients at infancy or over the age of 60. The disease involves a dilation of the cerebral ventricular system with a following compression of the brain’s parenchyma thus leading to increased intracranial pressur...

RNA Interference in Treatment of Neurological Conditions

RNA Interference in Treatment of Neurological Conditions


Introduction RNA interference (RNAi) is one means of reducing gene expression. Interference effects take place after the transcription stage by degrading a corresponding sequence of messenger RNA (mRNA). Since the discovery of RNAi, for which A. Fire and C.C. Mello were awarded the Nobel Prize, it has become evident that RNAi holds great po...

Correlations Between Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

Correlations Between Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder


Abstract Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) are psychiatric disorders that make daily life difficult. The two disorders share similar risk factors and outcomes and are both difficult to diagnose and treat. SZ and BD have also been observed to have high rates of comorbidity, which has led researchers to investigate possible links and si...

A Brief Overview of Sciatica

A Brief Overview of Sciatica


Introduction Sciatica results from complications within the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve is the largest nerve in the human body, starting in the lower back and traveling down the legs. This nerve controls the muscles located in the back of the knee and lower leg, which in turn maintains sensory perception in the back portion of the legs. Dam...

Craniopharyngiomas: An Overview of the Current Literature

Craniopharyngiomas: An Overview of the Current Literature


Introduction Disguising itself worldwide as a rare, benign brain tumor, craniopharyngiomas continue to devastate patients and challenge neurosurgeons. While the conventional treatment for brain tumors primarily involves surgery, craniopharyngiomas’ location and unique characteristics make surgery a perilous option. However, new findings fo...

Congenital Insensitivity to Pain: An Overview

Congenital Insensitivity to Pain: An Overview


Introduction Pain is a feeling of distress associated with actual or potential tissue damage [1]. It is responsible for allowing the body to react to stimuli and preventing further tissue damage. The absence of pain can make the body vulnerable to wounds and injury. This occurs in the case of “Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy ty...

Visual Snow Syndrome: An Overview

Visual Snow Syndrome: An Overview


Introduction Visual snow syndrome is a neurological disorder characterized by a constant visual disturbance of tiny, flickering dots that can be likened to the static of an untuned television. Visual snow has been very recently introduced into medical literature, so little research has been conducted [1]. The exact causes of visual snow are also...

Social Anxiety Disorder: An Overview

Social Anxiety Disorder: An Overview


Introduction Social anxiety disorder is a disorder in which an individual has excessive fears regarding their social performance. This disorder has neurological and psychological causes where countless children, adolescents, adults, and elderly can unknowingly suffer from it [1][3][4]. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many are isolating themselves ...

Genetic Mechanisms Involved in Alzheimer's Disease

Genetic Mechanisms Involved in Alzheimer's Disease


Introduction Neurodegenerative Diseases are a group of disorders which cause progressive and irreversible degeneration of the Nervous system. Alzheimer's Disease is one of the most common Neurodegenerative Diseases which is widely observed among the elderly. Thus, identifying and studying the factors causing this fatal disease are essential....

A Neuroanatomical Investigation and Case Study of Cerebral Akinetopsia

A Neuroanatomical Investigation and Case Study of Cerebral Akinetopsia


Introduction Cerebral akinetopsia, a disorder of the visual-motor system, is characterized by a form of “motion blindness” wherein patients report objects appearing to “jump” across their visual field. This syndrome has an acute onset and is caused by acquired lesions outside the striate cortex (responsible for visual inf...

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)


Introduction Premenstrual syndrome (PMS), a common cyclic disorder of young and middle-aged individuals who menstruate, is characterized by emotional and physical symptoms that consistently occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and resolve with menstruation. It affects 20 to 32 percent of premenopausal persons[1].  People wit...

The Split Mind: An Overview of Dissociative Identity Disorder

The Split Mind: An Overview of Dissociative Identity Disorder


Abstract At the sound of the word dissociating, or dissociation, many immediately think of the definition of removing oneself from a situation or detaching emotionally. While this may be true, there is certainly more to dissociation, and thus, the disorder associated with it. Although often classified as a personality disorder, Dissociative Iden...

Precision Medicine in the Diagnosis, Care, and Prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis

Precision Medicine in the Diagnosis, Care, and Prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis


Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-driven demyelination of neurons leading to neurological defects. It is currently one of the leading causes of neurological disability in young adults. With the advent of genotyping and advanced technology, precision medicine has risen to the forefront of MS research. Due to the heterogeneity of clini...

Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease: Psychological Side Effects and Ethical Considerations

Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson’s Disease: Psychological Side Effects and Ethical Considerations


Abstract More than a million Americans live with Parkinson’s disease (PD), the 14th largest cause of death in the United States. New treatments, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), have transformed the lives of PD patients, living with debilitating motor deficits. While effective for motor conditions, recent studies have shown that DBS c...

Glioblastoma Multiforme: An Overview

Glioblastoma Multiforme: An Overview


Abstract Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is an extremely aggressive and complex malignancy of the central nervous system. Despite continuous efforts to develop effective treatments, the survival rates are devastatingly low. Diagnosis of GBM is heavily reliant on diagnostic imaging like MRI and CT scans. Currently, the standard of care includes sur...

CRISPR/Cas9: A Potential Therapeutic Technique in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease

CRISPR/Cas9: A Potential Therapeutic Technique in the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease


Abstract Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder accounting for two-thirds of the cases of Dementia.  The causes are both genetic and environmental. There are two forms of the disease: FAD (familial Alzheimer's disease) and Sporadic Alzheimer's disease. The genes: APP (amyloid precursor protein), PSEN1 ...

Cell-Free Approach to Treat Peripheral Nerve Injury

Cell-Free Approach to Treat Peripheral Nerve Injury


Introduction Peripheral nerve injury (PNI) is caused by nerve damage in the spinal cord and outside the brain. The resulting outcome is poor functionality such as muscle atrophy. The repair of PNI is quite complex due to difficulties in axonal regeneration since it involves a change in Schwann cell phenotypes, activation of macrophages, and the ...

Adult Neurogenesis: An Overview

Adult Neurogenesis: An Overview


Introduction For decades, It has been widely believed that the formation of new neurons (neurogenesis) happens only in embryonic stages during development and it stops once development ends. In 1928, the father of neuroscience Ramón y Cajal said: “the founts of growth and regeneration ... dried up irrevocably. In the adult centers, ...

ASD Behavioral Regulations: A Technological Assistance

ASD Behavioral Regulations: A Technological Assistance


Abstract Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are life-long neurodevelopmental conditions interfering with a person's ability to communicate and relate to others. Pervasive deficits in communication and social interaction have been found, as well as the presence of repetitive patterns of behaviors, activities, and interests, which manifest throu...

Alzheimer's and Nanotechnology: The Missing Puzzle Piece

Alzheimer's and Nanotechnology: The Missing Puzzle Piece


Introduction Alzheimer’s is a disease that affects over 44 million people worldwide. To many families, when a loved one receives a diagnosis of Alzheimer's, it may seem like the end of the world. They have to endure their loved ones losing precious memories and forgetting who they actually are. Recently, scientists and researchers have...

A Strange Brain Disorder: Capgras Syndrome

A Strange Brain Disorder: Capgras Syndrome


Abstract As one of the strangest delusions that is not being widely recognized, Capgras Syndrome is a disorder in which patients believe their close friends or family members are imposters because they do not have any emotional attachment to them. The following essay is a general overview of Capgras Syndrome, given its symptoms, neurological cau...

Overview of Demyelinating Disorders

Overview of Demyelinating Disorders


Introduction Some diseases of the nervous system affect only localized areas of tissue, but diagnosis with a demyelinating disorder can potentially have far-reaching implications because demyelinating disorders target the myelin sheath on neurons. Many axons are covered in a fatty substance, myelin, that increases the speed of electric signals s...

Aphantasia: The Loss of the ‘Mind’s Eye’

Aphantasia: The Loss of the ‘Mind’s Eye’


Abstract Aphantasia, also known as the loss of the ‘mind’s eye’, is a neurological condition where an individual cannot visualize imagery. This phenomenon has raised many questions on how individuals can perform cognitive tasks such as solving complex mathematics questions such as those that require spatial reasoning, without t...

The Real Life “Perfect” Memory: Hyperthymesia

The Real Life “Perfect” Memory: Hyperthymesia


Abstract Hyperthymesia is a neurological syndrome in which those affected remember nearly every event of their lives in perfect detail. It is extremely rare, affecting only a handful of people alive today. Although many people desire the idea of having a “perfect memory”, the reality of living with hyperthymesia is often less-than-st...

Akinetopsia: Motion Blindness

Akinetopsia: Motion Blindness


Abstract Akinetopsia is a condition that prevents patients from seeing motion in their visual field, following a lesion in the V5 portion of the brain. When light hits the retina, the optic nerve carries signals to the brain, which are interpreted into a series of images, perceived as motion. There are two reported types of akinetopsia: one is i...

A Review of Current Research into Treatments for Huntington’s Disease

A Review of Current Research into Treatments for Huntington’s Disease


Abstract Huntington’s disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that causes behavioral, cognitive, and motor symptoms. Individuals affected by the disease typically have about 15-20 years to live after their diagnosis, during which symptoms will worsen until they are unable to perform basic functions. Since HD is genetic, fa...

Brain Injury Due to Electric Shock: Mechanism of Injury and Neuropsychiatric Consequences

Brain Injury Due to Electric Shock: Mechanism of Injury and Neuropsychiatric Consequences


Abstract Exposure of human tissue to electric current can have devastating effects, and the nervous system is especially vulnerable to electric shock. This paper reviews the mechanism of cell injury due to electric shock and the neuropsychiatric consequences. There is a delay in the onset of neurological and neuropsychological symptoms associate...

Exercise, Microbiota, and Depression: How the Effects of Exercise on the Gut Microbiota Affect Depression

Exercise, Microbiota, and Depression: How the Effects of Exercise on the Gut Microbiota Affect Depression


Abstract   Depression is a neuropsychiatric disorder that affects around 280 million people worldwide, with common symptoms including hopelessness, lack of interest in hobbies, anxiety, and feelings of worthlessness. Exercise has long been regarded as an essential aspect of both our physical and mental health; however, many different f...

The Role of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene and Copper in Alzheimer’s Disease

The Role of the Amyloid Precursor Protein Gene and Copper in Alzheimer’s Disease


Abstract  Alzheimer’s disease has been described as the cognitive impairment of an individual due to the formation of senile brain plaques (SP), and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) [2]. Researchers have hypothesized a multitude of possible causes for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), however strong evidence has been fo...

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Apolipoprotein (APOE): Impacts on Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) and Apolipoprotein (APOE): Impacts on Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)


Abstract The purpose of this review is to understand how the downregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may elevate the accumulation of beta-amyloid protein and impact the pathology of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). This review also identifies possible treatments that can increase BDNF levels to prevent cognitive impairment and ...

Advancements of the Neurological Condition: Hydrocephalus

Advancements of the Neurological Condition: Hydrocephalus


Abstract Hydrocephalus is a life-threatening neurological condition that affects approximately 1 million Americans of any age and is the most recurrent reason for performing brain surgery in children. This condition develops when complications of neurological diseases (such as strokes or tumors) cause the ventricles of the brain to accumulate ab...

Peroxynitrite and Chaperonins in the Molecular Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease

Peroxynitrite and Chaperonins in the Molecular Pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease


Abstract Parkinson’s Disease is a common neurodegenerative motor disease, a neurodegenerative disease that affects normal movement, that is prevalent in the elder population. It is characterized by the selective neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of the human brain. This disease is idiopathic, m...

Cellular Pathways of Parkinson’s Disease: Insights Into LRRK2 Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutics

Cellular Pathways of Parkinson’s Disease: Insights Into LRRK2 Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutics


Introduction Parkinson’s Disease (PD)  is the second most common neurodegenerative disease in the world and commonly affects patients later in life but has been known to be found in some younger patients as well. The primary effects of PD are found within the brain and are associated with the death of dopamine-producing neurons in the...

Aphasia: An Overview of Its Characteristics and a Novel Treatment

Aphasia: An Overview of Its Characteristics and a Novel Treatment


Abstract  Aphasias are a category of brain disorders that affect language processing cortices. Their symptoms include loss of coherent speech, loss of language comprehension, and, due to the afflicted cortices’ proximity to the motor cortices, paralysis. They can cause a great deal of patient frustration, and since the time of the ear...

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Pathology of Alzheimer's Disease

Epigenetic Mechanisms in the Pathology of Alzheimer's Disease


Abstract The presence of early-onset, familial Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is rare (around 3% to 5% of cases) and may be accredited to disease-causing mutations. More prevalent, by contrast, is the late-onset, sporadic (non-Mendelian) form of AD, which reflects the interaction of both genetic and environmental risk factors as well as the disr...

Anxiety Disorders and their Connection to Interoceptive and Exteroceptive Sensibility

Anxiety Disorders and their Connection to Interoceptive and Exteroceptive Sensibility


Abstract Anxiety is an emotional mental disorder, causing feelings of worry or fear that affect the daily lives of people who experience it. There are many anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and phobia disorders, which all have their own symptoms and pathologies. Anxiety is developed by many sensations, both...

St. John’s Wort’s Effect on Depression

St. John’s Wort’s Effect on Depression


Abstract One of the main responsibilities of neuroscience in the past decades has been to elucidate the boundaries of science and distinguish it from pseudoscience. The ever-increasing knowledge in different branches of neuroscience and the advent of newer technologies have helped neuroscientists gain insight into the effects of substances on th...

Tourette Syndrome - Life with Tics

Tourette Syndrome - Life with Tics


Abstract The first recorded case of Tourette syndrome was in the year 1885. The French neurologist Georges Gilles de la Tourette described symptoms of involuntary, uncontrolled movements and sounds in nine of his patients [1][2]. Named after this doctor, today, the disorder is called Tourette syndrome and its main characteristic is tics, which a...

Mirror Touch Synesthesia

Mirror Touch Synesthesia


Abstract Mirror Touch Synesthesia (MTS) is an extremely rare neurological condition where a person will feel the sensations of touch after seeing another person being touched. The term “mirror” refers to how the patient will mirror the sensations they see someone else experiencing. Around only two percent of the population suffers fr...

Act FAST, Brain is Time

Act FAST, Brain is Time


Abstract Stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a leading cause of death and disability across the world. Until the mid-1990s, there was no effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke, excluding antiplatelet agents such as aspirin. In 1995, a revolutionary study conducted by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders an...

CRISPR/Cas9 System and Nrf-2 Induction As Approaches To Treat Friedreich Ataxia

CRISPR/Cas9 System and Nrf-2 Induction As Approaches To Treat Friedreich Ataxia


Introduction The most prevalent genetic ataxia, Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), causes neurodegeneration, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and diabetes mellitus. Prospective therapies for FRDA, caused by a mutation in the FXN gene, are being investigated worldwide. The genetics, causes, and consequences of FRDA are briefly discussed in this article. This ...

Cotard’s Syndrome: The Real Walking Dead

Cotard’s Syndrome: The Real Walking Dead


Abstract Cotard’s syndrome is a rare condition under which patients may deny the existence of certain parts of their body, have delusions of immortality, and even believe that they are deceased. First observed by Dr. Jules Cotard, the syndrome has multiple symptoms, including nihilistic delusions, depression, and anxiety; in addition, it o...